Immune impairment occurs as a result of certain disorders to the immune system, resulting in the body’s inability to fight off germs that attack it such as bacteria, viruses or fungi immune impairment can occur as a result of genetic factors, exposure to certain diseases, malnutrition or the use of certain treatments such as chemotherapy, Immune impairment can be treated using several methods, and these methods will be clarified later.
Types of immune impairment
Immune impairment occurs when the immune system does not function properly, and there are two types of immune impairment: congenital primary immune impairment and acquired secondary immune impairment. These two types will be explained as follows:
Primary immune impairment disease: Primary immune impairment occurs when there is an imbalance in the work of globulin in the blood that works to fight germs or when the level of antibodies in the body is low or when some immune system cells do not function properly.
Secondary immune impairment disease: this type is acquired and occurs when people are exposed to chemicals or infections, and this type of immunity may lead to several diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of immune impairment
Symptoms of immune impairment vary depending on the type of disorder that affects the immune system and causes this weakness, but the most common symptom of immune impairment is the recurrence of infections, and also many other symptoms may appear in the infected person, these symptoms include:
- Weight loss.
- Slow growth, especially in children.
- There is swelling of the glands.
- There is swelling of the joints.
- The low number of platelets.
- Frequent blistering.
- There are problems with the gums.
- Allergies to certain types of food occur.
- Inflammation of the eyelid.
Causes of vulnerability
Primary immune impairment occurs as a result of genetic mutations, secondary immune impairment occurs as a result of the use of certain drugs and as a result of some diseases, and the causes of this type of immune impairment will be explained, as follows:
- Exposure to certain types of infection as HIV impairment, Epstein-Barr virus, or cytomegalovirus.
- Surgeries through which the spleen is removed or stem cells are transplanted.
- Zinc deficiency and lack of vitamins and minerals.
- Severe burns.
- Use steroid medication.
- The use of immunosuppressant drugs.
- Use anti-epilepsy drugs.
Diagnosis of immune impairment
The doctor will diagnose immune impairment disease by performing a physical examination also the doctor will ask the patient what his medical history is, It will perform a blood analysis test to see the number of white blood cells, to know the number of T cells, and to know the immunoglobulin equalizer Sometimes the doctor may perform an antibody test that is done by giving the patient some vaccines and then a blood analysis will be done after a few days or weeks, know the body’s response to this vaccine, it should be noted that when there is no weakness in the immune system, the immune system will produce antibodies to fight the germs in the vaccine. If the immune system does not produce antibodies to fight the vaccine, there is a weakness in it.
Treatment of immune impairment
Secondary immune impairment is treated by treating the causes of its occurrence, and primary immune impairment is treated by controlling infections, by many other methods, which will be explained, as follows:
Inflammatory Control: Inflammatory control helps in treating immune impairment. Infections can be controlled by one of the following methods:
Treatment of infections: Infections are treated by the use of antibiotics, and the doctor usually gives the immunocompromised patient these antibiotics intravenously within the hospital.
Preventing inflammation: Some people may be given long-term antibiotics to prevent respiratory infections and permanent damage to the lungs or ears, and also infections can be prevented by taking vaccines.
Treatment of symptoms: The use of certain drugs such as ibuprofen helps to treat pain, fever, and sinus congestion.
Strengthening the immune system: The doctor may boost the immune system by using immunoglobulin therapy, using interferon gamma therapy, or using growth agent therapy. These treatments will be clarified, as follows:
Immunoglobulin therapy: Immunoglobulin immunoglobulin is an antibody that helps the immune system fight germs, is administered to the patient intravenously, or may be injected under the skin.
Interferon gamma-gamma therapy: interferon is a manufactured material that helps fight viruses and stimulates immune system cells. The patient is given these substances by injecting them into the groin or arm thrice a week.
Treatment using growth factors: The vulnerability of immunity caused by a deficiency in white blood cells can be treated by using growth factors that help increase the number of the body’s white blood balls and thus strengthen immunity.
Stem cell transplantation: Stem cell transplantation helps to treat life-threatening immune impairment, stem cell transplantation is considered a permanent treatment for immune impairment, the transplant is performed by taking stem cells from the bone marrow of a healthy person and then transferring them to the patient.
Prevention of vulnerability
Primary immune impairment occurs as a result of genetic mutations, so it cannot be prevented. Secondary immunity impairment can be prevented by many methods, including:
- Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after entering the toilet and before eating.
- Brushing teeth twice a day.
- A healthy and balanced diet.
- Exercise regularly.
- Get enough sleep.
- Stress and stress control.
- Avoid mixing with people with infections.
- Taking vaccines.